After she had finished the exam, she felt very happy. (表達時間)
Having finished the exam, she felt very happy.
As she didn’t know where the theatre was, she asked for directions at the reception. (表達原因)
Not knowing where the theatre was, she asked for directions at the reception.
這是最常見的分詞子句之一。我們可以用 -ing 分詞子句來描述現在式或過去式的狀態。
As she was such a great singer, she didn’t have problems to find a job.
Being such a great singer, she didn’t have problems to find a job.
When I talk to you, I always feel better.
Talking to you, I always feel better.
Because I was walking quickly, I soon caught up with him.
Walking quickly, I soon caught up with him.
having + 過去分詞子句
現在完成式 have + P.P.， 把 have 變成 having + P.P. 放在句子一開頭當分詞子句來用。 通過使用現在完成式 having 分詞子句，您可以強調一個動作先於另一個動作。這些子句通常用於說明第二個動作的成因。
Having lost all the games, he felt depressed. 輸掉了所有比賽後，他感到沮喪。
Not having eaten for hours, I was desperate to find a restaurant. 幾個小時沒吃飯，我急切地想找一家餐館。
通常以被動結構 having been + 過去分詞，來替代 since 子句（原因）：
Having been unemployed for a so long, he felt he would never find a job. (=Since he had been…) 失業這麼久，他覺得自己永遠找不到工作。
Having been offered a promotion, she decided to stay in the company. (=Since she had been…) 得到晋昇後，她决定留在公司。
分詞子句也可以跟在介詞或連接詞之後： after、before、instead of、without、when、while等。在分詞子句（主要是 -ing 分詞子句）之前使用介詞或連接詞是很常見的：
Remember to take your bags when leaving the bus. 離開公共汽車時記得帶上你的包。
Instead of listening to me, Tom left the room. 湯姆沒有聽我說話，而是離開了房間。
After having lost many games, he felt depressed. 輸了很多場比賽後，他感到沮喪。
I visited her after talking with her mother. 我和她母親交談後去看她。
People often use their phones while driving. 人們經常在開車時使用手機。
過去分詞子句（ -ed /第三列）
Found in a litter bin, the briefcase contained classified information. (=The briefcase was found.) 公事包被發現在垃圾箱裏，裡面有機密資訊。
Impressed by the painting, John praised the artist. (=He was impressed by the painting.) 約翰對這幅畫印象深刻，稱讚了這位藝術家。
Founded 20 years ago, the company has received many awards. (=The company was founded 20 years ago.) 該公司成立於20年前，曾獲得多項獎項。
Located in the city centre, the bar is very popular among tourists. (=The bar is located in the city centre) 酒吧位於市中心，深受遊客歡迎。
The briefcase, which was found in a litter bin, contained classified information.
John, who was impressed by the painting, praised the artist.
The company, which was founded 20 years ago, has received many awards.
The bar, which is located in the city centre, is very popular among tourists
If you mix it with soda, the cocktail tastes even better. 如果你把它和蘇打水混合，雞尾酒的味道會更好。 (這裡 mix 的主詞是 you, 而 tastes 的主詞是 the cocktail.)
錯誤: Mixing it with soda, the cocktail tastes even better. (主詞不是同一個)
正確: Mixed with soda, the cocktail tastes even better. (同一個主詞)
If you water them at night, the plants live longer. 如果你在晚上澆水，植物會活得更長。
錯誤: Watering them at night, the plants live longer.
正確: Watered at night, the plants live longer.
分詞子句 – 練習題