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在新聞報導和正式寫作中,通常使用引述動詞(Reporting verbs)的被動式。使用此寫作方式可以讓我們在不確定信息是否真假,或者當我們想與消息來源保持一定的距離時 (保持寫作中立),以此寫作方式提供消息。

引述動詞是表達”說明”或”據信”的動詞,例如:agree, announce, believe, claim, consider, expect, hope, know, report, say, suggest, think, understand 等。我們可以使用這些動詞的被動式,以兩種不同的寫法表示與消息來源保持一定的距離。範例如下:

It is said that they are in Las Vegas.
They are said to be in Las Vegas.

it is said that(據說) … + 主詞+ 動詞

我們可以使用引述動詞的被動式在 It 後面。It + 引述動詞的被動式 + (that) + 子句(主詞 +動詞)。

It is believed that the pandemic is no longer a threat to humans. 人們認為,大流行不再對人類構成威脅。
It has been announced that classes are suspended because of the rain. 由於下雨,學校宣布停課。
It has been suggested that the teachers must take a day to rest. 有人建議老師們必須休息一天。
It was thought the shop would be on fire. 有人認為這家商店會著火。

someone is said to + 動詞原形 (不定詞)

當我們在句子的真實主詞之後(而不是在 it之後)使用引述動詞的被動式時,我們需要在引述動詞的被動式之後使用不定詞 (to + 動詞原形)

Someone is said to do(某人據說要做…)

當被引述的動作與引述同時發生時,我們可以使用:主詞+引述動詞被動式+to+動詞原形 (不定詞)。

She is said to have the most expensive house in the world. 據說她擁有世界上最昂貴的房子。
They were believed to be siblings all this time. 他們一直被認為是兄弟姐妹。
She is expected to become a doctor. 她有望成為一名醫生。

Someone is said to be doing (某人據說正持續在做)…

當被引述的動作持續進行中且與引述同時發生時,我們可以使用:主詞+引述/轉述動詞被動式+to be + 動詞-ing 。

We are thought to be living with love every minute. 我們被認為每分鐘都生活在愛中。

Someone is said to have done(據說某人(已)做過)

當被引述的動作在被引述之前(已)發生時,我們可以使用:主詞+引述/轉述動詞被動式+ to have  + 過去分詞 。

She was thought to have left the previous week.她被認為是在前一周離開的。 (=她在人們想到之前就離開了)
He is claimed to have hit another student. 據稱他打了另一名學生。 (=他先打了另一個學生,人們後來才傳出來說是他打的)

英文寫作中引述動詞的用法 – 練習題

1. He is considered the best school president. Everybody admires him.

2. The store owner is said more than 100 pieces of new shirts last night.

3. It is rumored the city for his girlfriend.

4. The new mobile phones are reported stolen in 31st street yesterday.

5. The artwork is believed from the Medieval Art era.

6. It is thought fair.

7. The witness is expected later this afternoon.

8. The suspect is known the city after the murder.

9. The new pair of shoes is thought in early December.

10. It is said the building together last night.




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