在正式英语中，我们可以放置一个否定或限制性副词在句子的一开头，来加重语气或使句子更戏剧化。当我们这样做时，副词后面跟着一个倒装：助动词 + 主语（+动词）.请参见下面的示例：
I could find my keys nowhere. ⇒ Nowhere could I find my keys.
没有助动词时，我们用 do/does （现在）或 did（过去）。
I understand the true meaning only now. ⇒ Only now do I understand the true meaning. 我现在才明白真正的意思。
I didn’t say anything until she arrived. ⇒ Not until she arrived did I say anything. 我什么也没说，直到她来了。
|Hardly + when||Hardly had we arrived home when we hear the news. |
|Barely + when||Barely had I opened the book when Mark put on music. |
|Scarcely + when||Scarcely had we finished talking when he made the call. |
|No sooner + than||No sooner had the shop opened its doors than it went bankrupt. |
|Only if + 从句||Only if we invest more money can we save the company.|
|Only when + 从句||Only when I sleep can I forget about the incident.|
|Only now||Only now can I understand what really happened.|
|Only + 任何元素||Only chicken did they serve for dinner. |
Only Mark could we trust.
|Not only + but also||Not only will you get a good result, but you will also be the best.|
|Not once||Not once did she look at me at the party.|
|Not since + 从句||Not since I was a child have I had such a great time.|
|Not + 任何元素||Not in a million years will I go back to that hotel. |
Not until I see her again will I be happy.
|Under no circumstances||Under no circumstances should we allow this to happen.|
|In no way||In no way am I related to this man.|
|Nowhere||Nowhere were the people more excited than in that stadium.|
|No way||No way are we going to pay for that.|
|never, rarely, seldom, little|
|Never||Never (before) have I met such a stupid person. |
Never (before) had she felt so happy.
|Rarely||Rarely did they speak to each other.|
|Seldom||Seldom have we seen him in his office since he took the job.|
|Little||Little did we know about him when we hired him.|
Hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner
我们通常使用 hardly … when, barely … when, scarcely…when, 和no sooner…than, +过去完成式来做倒装强调句。
我们用 no sooner … than (注意不是 that 或 when)。
副词 + 从句 + 倒装
注意在一些副词之后，例如 only if 和 only when + 从句（主语+动词），倒装不在从句中，而是作用在主句的主要动词。请看下面的句子：
Only when I sleep can I forget about the accident. (不是 Only when do I sleep I can…)
其他副词也会发生同样的情况，例如 not since 和 not until + 从句（主语+动词），倒装从不在从句中，而是作用在主句的主要动词。请看下面的句子：
Not since I was a child have I had such a great time. (不是Not since was I a child I’ve had…)
I can forget about the accident only when I sleep.
I haven’t had such a great time since I was a child.
在倒装强调句中，我们必须使用 not +另一个元素。
Not often can we see such great expressions of art. (不能说Not can we see such great expressions of art often.)
我们也可以在否定或限制性频率副词后使用倒装强调句，例如 seldom 很少, rarely 极少, 或 never 绝不。
我们经常使用 never 陈述经验。在那种情况下，我们通常使用现在完成式或过去完成式。
倒装强调句 – 练习题