After she had finished the exam, she felt very happy. (表达时间)
Having finished the exam, she felt very happy.
As she didn’t know where the theatre was, she asked for directions at the reception. (表达原因)
Not knowing where the theatre was, she asked for directions at the reception.
这是最常见的分词从句之一。我们可以用 -ing 分词从句来描述现在式或过去式的状态。
As she was such a great singer, she didn’t have problems to find a job.
Being such a great singer, she didn’t have problems to find a job.
When I talk to you, I always feel better.
Talking to you, I always feel better.
Because I was walking quickly, I soon caught up with him.
Walking quickly, I soon caught up with him.
having + 过去分词从句
现在完成式 have + P.P.， 把 have 变成 having + P.P. 放在句子一开头当分词从句来用。通过使用现在完成式 having 分词从句，您可以强调一个动作先于另一个动作。这些从句通常用于说明第二个动作的成因。
Having lost all the games, he felt depressed. 输掉了所有比赛后，他感到沮丧。
Not having eaten for hours, I was desperate to find a restaurant. 几个小时没吃饭，我急切地想找一家餐馆。
通常以被动结构 having been + 过去分词，来替代 since 从句（原因）：
Having been unemployed for a so long, he felt he would never find a job. (=Since he had been…) 失业这么久，他觉得自己永远找不到工作。
Having been offered a promotion, she decided to stay in the company. (=Since she had been…) 得到晋升后，她决定留在公司。
分词从句也可以跟在介词或连接词之后： after、before、instead of、without、when、while等。在分词从句（主要是 -ing 分词从句）之前使用介词或连接词是很常见的：
Remember to take your bags when leaving the bus. 离开公共汽车时记得带上你的包。
Instead of listening to me, Tom left the room. 汤姆没有听我说话，而是离开了房间。
After having lost many games, he felt depressed. 输了很多场比赛后，他感到沮丧。
I visited her after talking with her mother. 我和她母亲交谈后去看她。
People often use their phones while driving. 人们经常在开车时使用手机。
过去分词从句（ -ed /第三列）
Found in a litter bin, the briefcase contained classified information. (=The briefcase was found.) 公事包被发现在垃圾箱里，里面有机密资讯。
Impressed by the painting, John praised the artist. (=He was impressed by the painting.) 约翰对这幅画印象深刻，称赞了这位艺术家。
Founded 20 years ago, the company has received many awards. (=The company was founded 20 years ago.) 该公司成立于20年前，曾获得多项奖项。
Located in the city centre, the bar is very popular among tourists. (=The bar is located in the city centre) 酒吧位于市中心，深受游客欢迎。
The briefcase, which was found in a litter bin, contained classified information.
John, who was impressed by the painting, praised the artist.
The company, which was founded 20 years ago, has received many awards.
The bar, which is located in the city centre, is very popular among tourists
If you mix it with soda, the cocktail tastes even better. 如果你把它和苏打水混合，鸡尾酒的味道会更好。 (这里 mix 的主语是 you, 而 tastes 的主语是 the cocktail.)
错误: Mixing it with soda, the cocktail tastes even better. (主语不是同一个)
正确: Mixed with soda, the cocktail tastes even better. (同一个主语)
If you water them at night, the plants live longer. 如果你在晚上浇水，植物会活得更长。
错误: Watering them at night, the plants live longer.
正确: Watered at night, the plants live longer.
分词从句 – 练习题