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在新闻报导和正式写作中,通常使用引述动词(Reporting verbs)的被动式。使用此写作方式可以让我们在不确定信息是否真假,或者当我们想与消息来源保持一定的距离时 (保持写作中立),以此写作方式提供消息。

引述动词是表达”说明”或”据信”的动词,例如:agree, announce, believe, claim, consider, expect, hope, know, report, say, suggest, think, understand 等。我们可以使用这些动词的被动式,以两种不同的写法表示与消息来源保持一定的距离。范例如下:

It is said that they are in Las Vegas.
They are said to be in Las Vegas.

it is said that(据说) … + 主语+ 动词

我们可以使用引述动词的被动式在 It 后面。 It + 引述动词的被动式 + (that) + 子句(主语 +动词)。

It is believed that the pandemic is no longer a threat to humans. 人们认为,大流行不再对人类构成威胁。
It has been announced that classes are suspended because of the rain. 由于下雨,学校宣布停课。
It has been suggested that the teachers must take a day to rest. 有人建议老师们必须休息一天。
It was thought the shop would be on fire. 有人认为这家商店会着火。

someone is said to + 动词原形 (不定式)

当我们在句子的真实主语之后(而不是在 it之后)使用引述动词的被动式时,我们需要在引述动词的被动式之后使用不定式 (to + 动词原形)

Someone is said to do(某人据说要做…)

当被引述的动作与引述同时发生时,我们可以使用:主语+引述动词被动式+to+动词原形 (不定式)。

She is said to have the most expensive house in the world. 据说她拥有世界上最昂贵的房子。
They were believed to be siblings all this time. 他们一直被认为是兄弟姐妹。
She is expected to become a doctor. 她有望成为一名医生。

Someone is said to be doing (某人据说正持续在做)…

当被引述的动作持续进行中且与引述同时发生时,我们可以使用:主语+引述/转述动词被动式+to be + 动词-ing 。

We are thought to be living with love every minute. 我们被认为每分钟都生活在爱中。

Someone is said to have done(据说某人(已)做过)

当被引述的动作在被引述之前(已)发生时,我们可以使用:主语+引述/转述动词被动式+ to have  + 过去分词 。

She was thought to have left the previous week.她被认为是在前一周离开的。 (=她在人们想到之前就离开了)
He is claimed to have hit another student. 据称他打了另一名学生。 (=他先打了另一个学生,人们后来才传出来说是他打的)

英文写作中引述动词的用法 – 练习题

1. He is considered the best school president. Everybody admires him.

2. The store owner is said more than 100 pieces of new shirts last night.

3. It is rumored the city for his girlfriend.

4. The new mobile phones are reported stolen in 31st street yesterday.

5. The artwork is believed from the Medieval Art era.

6. It is thought fair.

7. The witness is expected later this afternoon.

8. The suspect is known the city after the murder.

9. The new pair of shoes is thought in early December.

10. It is said the building together last night.





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