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动词时态告诉我们动作在何时发生:现在、过去或未来。三个主要时态中的都有进行时、完成时和完成进行时,它为我们提供了更多讯息来说明动作的时间、动作的发展或动作的完成。

这张动词时态英文文法表概述了 12 种不同的动词时态,并附有肯定、否定和疑问词的问句或一般问句形式的范例。您还将找到有关每个时态和常见信号词的用法的提示,以帮助您识别时态。

时态肯定(P)、否定(N)疑问(Q)用法信号词
一般现在时P: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?
* 重复/固定的动作
* 一般常见动作
* 一个接一个发生的动作
* 确认的未来行动(时间表)
always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
现在进行时P: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?
* 正在发生的动作
* 在某一个限定的时间段里发生的动作
* 已经计画好的或事先同意的未来动作
at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now
一般过去时P: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?
* 过去发生的单一动作或重复的动作
* 过去一个接着一个发生的动作
* 有一个新动作打断了一个已经发生的动作
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
过去进行时P: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?
* 强调过去某个动作发生的过程
* 数个动作同时发生
* 被一个新动作打断时正在发生的动作
while, as long as
现在完成时P: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?
* 强调结果
* 持续到现在的动作
* 刚刚完成的动作
* 已完成的动作且对现在有影响
* 到说话当下从未/一次/不止一次发生的动作
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
现在完成进行时P: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?
* 强调的是行动(不是结果)
* 一直持续到现在的动作,且还在继续
* 已完成的动作且对现在有影响
all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
过去完成时P: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?
* 过去某个时间之前发生的动作
* 有时可以与过去完成进行式互换
* 只强调过去某个时间点之前发生的事情
already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
过去完成进行时P: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?
* 过去某一点之前的动作
* 有时候可以与过去完成式可直接互换使用
* 强调动作或动作的持续长度
for, since, the whole day, all day
将来时 (will)P: He will speak.
N: He will not speak.
Q: Will he speak?
* 未来不受影响的事件
* 自发的决定
* 对未来的假设/不肯定
in a year, next …, tomorrow,
first conditional sentences (If you ask her, she will help you.),
supposition: I think, probably, perhaps
将来时 (going to)P: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?
* 关于未来的预先存在的意图
* 关于未来的合乎逻辑的结论
in one year, next week, tomorrow
将来进行时P: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?
* 将在未来某个时间点发生的动作
* 确认或明显的事件
in one year, next week, tomorrow
将来完成时P: He will have spoken.
N: He will not have spoken.
Q: Will he have spoken?
* 将在未来某个时间完成的动作by Monday, in a week
将来完成进行时P: He will have been speaking.
N: He will not have been speaking.
Q: Will he have been speaking?
* 将在未来某个时间完成的动作
* 强调动作的长度
for …, the last couple of hours, all day long

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